UC Berkeley Professor Taught with Suspected Native American Stays — ProPublica

UC Berkeley Professor Taught with Suspected Native American Remains — ProPublica

For many years, famed professor Tim White used an enormous assortment of human stays — bones sorted by physique half and saved in picket bins — to show his anthropology college students on the College of California, Berkeley.

White, a world-renowned professional on human evolution, stated the gathering was handed down by way of generations of anthropology professors earlier than he began instructing with it within the late Seventies. It got here with no data, he stated. Most weren’t labeled in any respect or stated solely “lab.”

However that straightforward description masked a darkish historical past, UC Berkeley directors not too long ago acknowledged. UC Berkeley performed an evaluation of the gathering after White reported its contents in response to a college systemwide order in 2020 to seek for human stays. Directors disclosed to state officers in Could that the evaluation discovered the gathering contains the stays of not less than 95 folks excavated from gravesites — lots of them possible Native Individuals from California, in line with beforehand unreported paperwork obtained by ProPublica and NBC Information.

The college’s disclosure was significantly painful as a result of it concerned a professor who many Indigenous folks already seen as a main antagonist, in line with interviews with tribal members.

UC Berkeley has lengthy angered tribal nations with its dealing with of 1000’s of ancestral stays amassed in the course of the college’s centurylong marketing campaign of excavating Indigenous burial grounds.

The Repatriation Challenge

A sequence investigating the return of Native American ancestral stays.

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Greater than three a long time in the past, Congress ordered museums, universities and authorities businesses that obtain federal funding to publicly report any human stays of their collections that they believed to be Native American after which return them to tribal nations.

UC Berkeley has been sluggish to take action. The college estimates that it nonetheless holds the stays of 9,000 Indigenous folks within the campus’ Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology — greater than some other U.S. establishment sure by the Native American Graves Safety and Repatriation Act, in line with a ProPublica evaluation of federal knowledge.

That tally doesn’t embody the stays that White reported and relinquished in 2020. For many years, White served as an professional adviser within the college’s repatriation choices, sitting on committees that weighed whether or not to grant or deny tribes’ requests, in line with a evaluation of a whole bunch of pages of federal testimony and inner college paperwork.

White stated the gathering didn’t must be reported underneath NAGPRA as a result of there is no such thing as a approach to decide the origin of the bones — and due to this fact the legislation doesn’t apply.

The gathering has uncovered deep rifts at UC Berkeley, pitting a outstanding professor who stated he’s finished nothing fallacious in opposition to college directors who’ve apologized to tribes for not sharing details about the stays sooner.

For tribes the episode follows a well-known sample of UC Berkeley’s delays and failures to be clear with them.

“This can be a main ethical, moral and doubtlessly authorized violation,” stated Laura Miranda, a member of the Pechanga Band of Indians and chair of the California Native American Heritage Fee. She made her feedback at a July listening to held by the fee, which oversees the college system’s dealing with of Indigenous stays.

UC Berkeley officers declined interview requests, saying “tribes have requested us to not.” In a press release, the college stated White was not concerned in repatriation choices. There may be now a moratorium on utilizing ancestral stays for instructing or analysis functions, in line with the assertion. The Hearst Museum is at present closed to the general public in order that workers can prioritize repatriation.

The college additionally acknowledged that, prior to now, UC Berkeley had “mishandled its repatriation duties.”

“The campus privileged some sorts of scientific and scholarly proof over tribal pursuits and proof offered by tribes,” the college stated within the assertion.

A man holds a hominid skull up to the camera.

College of California, Berkeley, anthropology professor Tim White holds a reproduction of a 1.7-million-year-old homo erectus cranium within the Nationwide Analysis Centre on Human Evolution in Burgos, Spain.

Credit score:
Ricardo Ordóñez/Ediciones El País, 2022

In an interview with ProPublica and NBC Information, White stated he’s been villainized for strictly adhering to the federal legislation, which he stated requires balancing scientific proof with different proof.

Within the years instantly after Congress handed NAGPRA, UC Berkeley relied on White’s experience as curator of the museum’s skeletal assortment to problem Indigenous folks’s repatriation requests, in line with testimony earlier than a federal advisory committee.

Some tribal members accused him of demanding too excessive a burden of scientific proof for repatriations and discounting information handed down by way of the generations. Within the Nineties, he made headlines for combating to make use of Native American stays as instructing instruments, arguing that college students shouldn’t be disadvantaged of the chance to study from them. He later sued to dam the UC system from returning two units of stays estimated to this point from 9,000 years in the past, saying they had been too outdated to be linked to any residing descendants.

NAGPRA doesn’t require definitive scientific proof for repatriation, solely that establishments report human stays that might doubtlessly be Native American and seek the advice of with the affected tribal nations, stated Sherry Hutt, an lawyer who’s a former program supervisor of the federal Nationwide NAGPRA Program. “It’s not a scientific normal. It’s a authorized normal,” she stated.

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White usually had the backing of college directors in disputes over stays, however not anymore. On the July listening to earlier than the California Native American Heritage Fee, UC Berkeley directors cited an evaluation by one other anthropologist on the faculty, Sabrina Agarwal, that decided 1000’s of the bones within the assortment had been excavated from gravesites.

Given UC Berkeley’s legacy of raiding Native American graves, it’s possible the gathering White taught with accommodates the stays of Native Individuals from what’s at present California, stated Linda Rugg, affiliate vice chancellor for analysis on the college.

“I wish to apologize for the ache that we brought on by holding on to this assortment,” Rugg stated on the listening to. “After we discovered about it, we had been dismayed ourselves.” A college spokesperson stated workers and directors are consulting with a number of tribes on subsequent steps. Federal officers confirmed UC Berkeley has contacted them requesting steerage.

A college campus building

The Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at UC Berkeley

Credit score:
Justin Katigbak for ProPublica

White, who retired final spring however remains to be a professor emeritus, stated directors knew concerning the assortment, which was used to show a whole bunch of scholars over time. “It is rather disappointing to seek out the Berkeley staff are making false allegations and misrepresentations,” he stated.

Behind UC Berkeley’s reckoning is the centurylong saga a few highly effective, progressive establishment that’s lastly confronting its previous. Isaac Bojorquez, chairman of the KaKoon Ta Ruk Band of Ohlone-Costanoan Indians of the Massive Sur Rancheria, referred to as for accountability for the newly reported stays, but additionally for UC Berkeley’s decadeslong delays and denials of different tribes’ repatriation requests.

“We would like our ancestors,” he stated. “They need to have by no means been disturbed within the first place.”

A Painful Historical past

With no documentation for the origin of his instructing assortment, White surmised in a report to school officers in 2020 that it dated again to UC Berkeley’s early days and the college’s first anthropology professor, Alfred Louis Kroeber.

Kroeber, who joined the college in 1901, turned a world-renowned scholar for his analysis on Native Individuals in California, encouraging the excavations of Indigenous gravesites throughout his four-decade tenure.

His title not too long ago was stripped from Berkeley’s anthropology constructing, partially for housing an Indigenous man discovered within the Sierra Foothills as a residing exhibit at what would later develop into the Hearst Museum. Described because the final residing member of his band of Yahi Indians, the person — whom Kroeber referred to as “Ishi” — was studied and made to craft arrows and greet guests for almost 5 years, till his loss of life in 1916.

Two men in early 20th century suits

Anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber with “Ishi,” the final identified member of the Yahi tribe

Credit score:
By way of web site of College of California, San Francisco

The Hearst Museum continued for many years to voraciously acquire Native American stays and funerary objects, making an attempt to assemble a set to rival the British Museum and Harvard College, stated historian Tony Platt, a distinguished affiliated scholar at UC Berkeley’s Middle for the Examine of Regulation and Society. “To be an awesome college you’ve bought to accumulate stuff, you’ve bought to hoard large quantities of issues,” Platt stated.

The overwhelming majority of UC Berkeley’s assortment of stays got here from sacred ancestral websites in California, in line with ProPublica’s evaluation of federal knowledge. The gathering included ancestors of the Ohlone, the tribe whose land was seized by the federal authorities to fund public universities, together with UC Berkeley.

The college finally amassed the stays of about 11,600 Native Individuals, saved within the basement beneath its gymnasium swimming pool and in different campus buildings. However Platt stated that quantity is probably going an undercount as a result of museum data usually counted a number of stays excavated from the identical gravesite as one particular person.

Highlighted section reads:

A piece within the 1878 College of California Register soliciting contributions to the college’s collections

Credit score:
Highlighting by ProPublica. Register of the College of California, 1878-79.

Within the early Seventies, Native American activists’ long-standing resistance to the grave robbing began gaining momentum amid protests that stealing from Native Individuals’ burial websites within the title of science was a human rights violation.

By then, the instructing assortment that anthropology professors used had grown to 1000’s of bones and enamel that White stated in his report to school directors had been commingled with others donated by beginner gravediggers, dentists, anatomists, physicians, legislation enforcement and organic provide corporations.

The stays had been unceremoniously sorted by physique half so college students might research them. A jumble of enamel. A drawer of clavicles. Separate bins for skulls. For many years, anthropologists added to the gathering, used it of their lessons after which handed it alongside to the professors who got here after them, White stated.

It was this assortment that White began instructing with when he joined UC Berkeley’s anthropology college in 1977.

UC Berkeley employed White, then 27, quickly after he had obtained his Ph.D. in organic anthropology from the College of Michigan. He already was collaborating with a staff to investigate “Lucy,” a 3.2-million-year-old human ancestor.

White revealed articles in prestigious journals and co-authored a textbook, “Human Osteology,” that boasted of UC Berkeley’s assortment of human stays and referred to as historical skeletons “ambassadors from the previous.”

Two men pose in front of a case of specimen drawers.

American anthropologists Donald C. Johanson, left, credited with discovering the three.2-million-year-old skeleton “Lucy,” and White in 1979. (Johanson isn’t concerned within the present controversy at Berkeley.)

Credit score:
Bettmann/Getty Pictures

Congress handed NAGPRA in 1990, recognizing that human stays of any ancestry “should always be handled with dignity and respect.” As UC Berkeley ready to adjust to the brand new legislation, the campus museum appointed White curator of organic anthropology, overseeing the college’s assortment of human stays.

Nearly as quickly as tribes began making claims to ancestral stays underneath NAGPRA, Indigenous folks accused White of undermining their efforts to rebury their ancestors, in line with a evaluation of a whole bunch of pages of testimony earlier than a federal evaluation committee tasked with mediating NAGPRA disputes.

Since NAGPRA solely utilized to federally acknowledged tribal nations, many tribes in California weren’t entitled to hunt repatriation. (Of the 183 tribes within the state, 68 nonetheless lack federal recognition, in line with the Native American Heritage Fee.) UC Berkeley’s assortment of stays included these of 1000’s of individuals designated as unavailable for repatriation as a result of they got here from tribes missing federal recognition.

Recourse underneath the legislation was restricted, leaving tribal nations to file formal challenges with the federal NAGPRA Overview Committee, an advisory group whose members signify tribal, scientific and museum organizations. It may solely supply suggestions in response to disputes.

Within the first problem following the passage of the legislation, in February 1993 the Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei, a Native Hawaiian group, took a dispute over repatriation of two ancestral stays earlier than the federal committee. The stays had been donated to UC Berkeley in 1935, at which era a museum curator categorized them as Polynesian. White disagreed.

Addressing the committee, White launched himself as “the person who’s liable for the skeletal collections at Berkeley.” He argued the stays may not be Native Hawaiian and will belong to victims of shipwrecks, drownings or crimes. They need to be preserved for research, he added, making an analogy to UC Berkeley’s library ebook assortment, the place historians entry volumes for years as their understanding evolves.

Edward Halealoha Ayau, then the Native Hawaiian group’s govt director, pounded his fists on the desk in outrage. “We would not have cultural sensitivity to books. We didn’t descend from books,” he stated, in line with a transcript of the assembly.

Ancestral stays should not analysis materials, Ayau stated, they’re folks with whom he shares a connection — a perspective that’s central to Native Hawaiian tradition.

White not too long ago stated that his analogy evaluating human stays to books was taken out of context. “Each maintain info,” he stated. “I used to be clearly talking metaphorically.”

As a substitute of recommending that each ancestors’ stays be repatriated on to the Hui Mālama, the committee suggested UC Berkeley to return one in all them and ship the opposite to the Bishop Museum in Honolulu for evaluation, Ayau stated. There, researchers lastly agreed that the stays had been Native Hawaiian — however solely after conducting a scientific evaluation over Ayau’s objections.

“I simply began crying,” Ayau, who now chairs the federal NAGPRA Overview Committee, recalled in a latest interview. “We failed to stop another type of desecration.”

The Bishop Museum declined to touch upon its function within the 1993 repatriation, saying it occurred too way back for anybody to have information of it.

For Ayau, the expertise left him with a way of loss over the therapy of his ancestors.

“To have somebody disturb them is basically unhealthy,” he stated. “However then to have them steal them after which struggle you to get them again is past horrific.”

Two people stand on either side of a container covered in a cloth and wreathed with leaves.

Kalehua Caceres, of the Workplace of Hawaiian Affairs, left, and Edward Halealoha Ayau, now the chief director of the Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei, at a ceremony to current the human stays from the gathering of Germany’s Abroad Museum to a delegation from the state of Hawaii in 2022.

Credit score:
Sina Schuldt/image alliance through Getty Pictures

“Berkeley Ought to Be Ashamed”

White’s struggle to make use of a set of Native American stays he had borrowed from the Hearst Museum for instructing functions made headlines within the Nineties after he clashed with then-museum director Rosemary Joyce. She stated when she was employed in 1994, it was widespread apply for White and different museum curators with keys to borrow ancestral stays and belongings with out documenting what they’d taken.

“Simply leaving apart NAGPRA, as a museum anthropologist, that’s an unacceptable factor,” she instructed ProPublica and NBC Information. “When supplies should not within the bodily management of the workers of the museum, you want authorized documentation.”

She modified the locks on the museum’s cupboard space. Heeding requests from tribes, she tried to recall a museum assortment of Native American stays that White saved on mortgage in his lab and used for instructing. White refused to return them.

The vice provost for analysis of the UC system despatched Jay Stowsky, then the system’s director of analysis coverage, to mediate the dispute between White and Joyce. Stowsky agreed with Joyce, calling the dearth of controls on the museum “horrible.” He stated human stays had been “simply type of thrown into packing containers” with a label on them. “Berkeley must be ashamed of itself on so many ranges,” Stowsky, now a senior tutorial administrator at UC Berkeley, stated in a latest interview.

Drawers with labels including

Drawers within the “Osteology Instructing Assortment,” as depicted in a report that White wrote and despatched to the director of the Hearst Museum and others.

Credit score:
By way of letter from Tim White, Aug. 28, 2020

White filed a whistleblower criticism with the college in 1997 accusing the museum, underneath Joyce’s management, of looking for an pointless extension to NAGPRA’s reporting deadline. (Campus investigators discovered no improper exercise, in line with White.)

Joyce stated she was merely making an attempt to account for all of the stays that will must be reported underneath NAGPRA. “It’s actually sort of insane to should say, I did the factor that the legislation stated I ought to do,” she instructed ProPublica and NBC Information. Joyce stated the complaints had been discovered to be “meritless.”

White then filed an inner grievance in opposition to Joyce with the college’s Educational Senate, alleging that by asking him to relinquish the human stays she had infringed on his “tutorial privileges.”

The college brokered a deal: White might preserve ancestral stays offered museum workers and tribes might entry them to conduct stock and report them underneath NAGPRA.

Joyce stated the association was untenable and he or she felt unsupported by the college’s management. White continued to show with the stays.

A Decade After NAGPRA

Myra Masiel-Zamora, now an archaeologist for the Pechanga Band of Indians, enrolled in White’s osteology class greater than 20 years in the past when she was 18 and a first-year scholar. However, she stated, she withdrew from the course after a instructing assistant instructed her the human stays belonged to Native Individuals.

“That was the primary time I actually really realized that an establishment might and may — and is — utilizing actual Native American ancestors as instructing instruments,” she stated. “I used to be actually upset.”

Concern over establishments’ dealing with of Indigenous stays prolonged past the classroom.

Troubled by the sluggish tempo of repatriations underneath NAGPRA, California lawmakers handed their very own model of the legislation in 2001, aiming to shut loopholes within the federal statute and permit tribes to say stays no matter whether or not they have federal recognition. However the state didn’t fund an oversight committee established by the invoice.

In 2007, with out consulting tribes or providing public rationalization, UC Berkeley abruptly fired museum staff who had been liable for NAGPRA compliance, and named White and others to a newly fashioned campus repatriation committee, in line with tribal leaders.

That upset tribal members, who introduced their considerations concerning the new committee to state senators. The firings “eradicated the one workers on the college that will stand as much as Mr. Tim White and his offensive remarks relating to Native American tribes and our ancestral stays,” Reno Franklin, then a council member and now the chairman of the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians, stated throughout a 2008 state legislative listening to.

In emails despatched to ProPublica and NBC Information, White sought to discredit the testimony by Franklin and others on the listening to by saying that it had been the results of a decadeslong effort by the college to make use of him as a scapegoat for its failures. White stated he solely held an advisory function and didn’t make ultimate repatriation choices.

1000’s of Native American stays had been used as analysis supplies within the Anthropology and Artwork Apply Constructing at UC Berkeley.

Credit score:
Justin Katigbak for ProPublica

In the meantime, White’s profession was skyrocketing after he led a staff that found and excavated a 4.4-million-year-old hominid unearthed in Ethiopia. It was deemed the scientific breakthrough of the 12 months in 2009 by the American Affiliation for the Development of Science and cemented his status within the discipline. It additionally landed him, together with the likes of Barack Obama and Steve Jobs, on Time journal’s 2010 record of the world’s 100 most influential folks.

Two years later, White and two different professors sued to dam the repatriation of two 9,000-year-old skeletons to the Kumeyaay, 12 tribes whose homelands straddle the U.S.-Mexico border close to San Diego. White and the opposite professors needed to review the stays, which had been unearthed in 1976 from the grounds of the chancellor’s home on the College of California, San Diego, campus.

They argued that there wasn’t sufficient proof to assist the Kumeyaay’s ancestral connection to the stays, and that the UC system had didn’t show that the stays might legally be thought-about “Native American.” Primarily based on the professors’ interpretation of the legislation, human stays needed to have a cultural or organic hyperlink to a present-day tribe to be thought-about Native American.

They stated that not permitting them to review the stays violated their rights as researchers. An appeals court docket dominated in opposition to the professors, citing the Kumeyaay’s sovereign immunity, which means they couldn’t be sued.

As tribes’ frustration with the dearth of progress on repatriations grew, UC Berkeley convened a “tribal discussion board” in 2017. Within the non-public gathering, tribal leaders and others expressed anger that college workers, together with White, had resisted their requests to repatriate and that the college was requiring an extreme quantity of proof to reclaim ancestors, in line with an inner college report.

The next 12 months, UC Berkeley Chancellor Carol Christ disbanded the campus’ NAGPRA committee that White had served on, data present. The college established a brand new one which didn’t embody him.

In the meantime, Berkeley ready for its greatest repatriation to this point: the return of greater than 1,400 ancestors to the Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians, a small tribe whose ancestors’ stays had been excavated from burial grounds alongside California’s coast and Channel Islands. Based on the college’s NAGPRA stock data, lots of the stays had been taken by an archaeologist in 1901 whose expeditions had been funded by Phoebe Apperson Hearst, spouse of mining magnate George Hearst and namesake of UC Berkeley’s anthropology museum.

UC Berkeley held on to the Chumash stays and loaned some to White for analysis initiatives, earlier than returning them to the tribe in the summertime of 2018.

When the repatriation day lastly got here, Nakia Zavalla and different tribal members drove 300 miles to campus and entered a backroom of the anthropology constructing the place UC Berkeley saved their ancestors.

“Going into that facility for the primary time was horrifying. Actually cabinets of human stays,” stated Zavalla, the tribe’s cultural director. “And also you pull them out, and there’s ancestors combined all collectively, generally simply all femur bones, a tray filled with skulls.”

A woman with a beaded necklace

Nakia Zavalla, cultural director of the Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians, stated the tribe needed to deliver its personal cardboard packing containers when retrieving repatriated stays.

Credit score:
Alejandra Rubio for NBC and ProPublica

Zavalla stated tribal members needed to deliver their very own cardboard packing containers to hold their ancestors residence for burial — a criticism different tribal nations have made in coping with the college. UC Berkeley officers stated they had been unaware of Zavalla’s “disturbing account” however have modified their insurance policies to make sure they supply help “as requested by Tribes.”

Zavalla stated the go to highlighted how the college had disadvantaged the tribe of greater than ancestral stays, she stated. The college housed recordings and gadgets that ethnographers and anthropologists had beforehand collected from Chumash elders.

For Zavalla, the knowledge might have benefited her and different tribal members’ efforts to revitalize the Santa Ynez Chumash’s language and traditions — which authorities insurance policies as soon as sought to eradicate. However the info was not freely shared, she stated: “They stole these gadgets.”

Houses and farms sit in a valley below low mountains.

The Chumash reservation is in California’s Santa Ynez Valley.

Credit score:
Alejandra Rubio for NBC and ProPublica

“They Must Go House”

California state lawmakers handed a invoice in 2018 to increase the Native American Heritage Fee’s oversight of repatriation insurance policies and compliance committees inside the UC system. The laws referred to as for an audit of all UC campuses’ compliance with NAGPRA.

The next 12 months, UC Berkeley lastly barred using Native American stays for instructing or analysis, in line with the college.

The state auditor’s workplace introduced the outcomes of its evaluation in 2020, singling out UC Berkeley for making onerous calls for of tribes claiming stays.

The auditor additionally famous that UC Berkeley had recognized 180 lacking artifacts or human stays. In a press release, UC Berkeley stated workers had looked for the lacking stays and artifacts, a few of which had been misplaced for greater than a century.

Quickly after the audit, the UC president’s workplace referred to as for all campuses to look departments that traditionally studied human stays for any that had not been beforehand reported.

In August 2020, White reported the contents of the gathering he taught with to school directors.

White instructed ProPublica and NBC Information that given the dearth of documentation, it will be unattainable to find out in the event that they had been Native American, a lot much less say which tribe they need to be returned to.

“There’s no person on this planet who can sit down and inform you what the cultural affiliation of this decrease jaw is, or that decrease jaw is. No one can try this,” he stated.

The Native American Heritage Fee is constant to press UC Berkeley for solutions and accountability for its dealing with of the gathering White reported.

Bojorquez, the tribal chairman and an NAHC commissioner, stated it was “mind-blowing” that Berkeley nonetheless has not offered any documentation on the origins of the gathering.

The college ought to have consulted tribes sooner, he stated, to make sure the stays had been dealt with respectfully and to assist velocity the repatriation course of. “A lot occurred to those ancestors,” he stated — they shouldn’t be in a field or on a shelf.

“They should go residence,” he stated.

Extra Lacking

Separate from the instructing assortment that White reported in 2020, he additionally notified directors that he’d found stays with museum labels stashed in grey bins in a instructing laboratory. They later had been recognized because the partial stays of six ancestors of the Santa Ynez Chumash that had been purported to have been repatriated in 2018.

When UC Berkeley lastly knowledgeable the Chumash six months later, it felt like a “blow to the chest,” stated Zavalla, the tribe’s cultural director. Zavalla and different tribal workers members drove to Berkeley to retrieve the stays.

“I felt lied to,” she stated. “They didn’t give us all the ancestors, they usually didn’t do their due diligence.”

The invention of the lacking stays outraged Sam Cohen, an lawyer for the tribe, who referred to as for probes into whether or not UC Berkeley or White had violated insurance policies or legal guidelines.

“He’s thought-about untouchable, I feel, by Berkeley as a result of he’s so well-known in human evolution,” Cohen stated of White. “He mainly wasn’t going to voluntarily adjust to something till he was pressured.”

White stated he was not sure how the stays ended up within the instructing laboratory. He urged they could have been mistakenly positioned in his lab throughout a transfer years in the past whereas he was abroad. He offered ProPublica and NBC Information with a replica of an electronic mail from an investigator with UC Berkeley’s Workplace of Threat and Compliance Providers, which stated the workplace discovered no violation on his half relating to the Chumash stays. UC Berkeley declined to touch upon the end result of the investigation, calling it a personnel matter.

“I’ve accounted for every little thing that occurred in granular element,” White stated in an interview.

Chancellor Christ apologized to the tribe in December in a letter and acknowledged: “We do perceive that, given our historical past, it’s troublesome for tribes to believe in our college and Professor White.”

The apology was little comfort, Cohen stated, particularly because it got here with one more painful acknowledgement. College data present there are nonetheless extra unreturned Chumash ancestors. To this point, they’ve but to be discovered.

Christ assured the Chumash that the college was dedicated to returning all Native American ancestors to all tribes. UC Berkeley officers estimate it will likely be not less than a decade earlier than that occurs.

Alex Mierjeski contributed analysis. Ash Ngu contributed knowledge evaluation.

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